Glaucoma | Cannabis Wiki

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Glaucoma

Glaucoma is an ocular disorder identified as a group due to the increase in intraocular pressure. A condition in which the pressure inside the eye becomes abnormally high, leading to visual impairment and sometimes blindness.

Primary Glaucoma

In most cases, there is no other associated eye disorder, and the condition is termed primary glaucoma. There are two main classifications:

Angle-Closure Glaucoma (acute or congestive glaucoma)

With angle-closure glaucoma, the angle where the aqueous humour (fluid in the front chamber of the eye) drain closes, leading to a rapid increases in eye pressure. This results in pain and blurring of vision. Nausea and vomiting may occur if the pain is severe.

Open-Angle Glaucoma (chronic simple glaucoma)

Open-angle glaucoma is a common cause of blindness and affects both eyes. The drainage of the aqueous humour is blocked, although the angle remains open. Raised eye pressure leads to ‘cupping’ of the optic disc (dipping of the center of the optic disc) due to thinning of the nerve fiber layer. This causes abnormalities in the visual field and often blindness.

Secondary Glaucoma

Glaucoma can also arise as a result of other conditions and diseases affecting the eye. In common with primary glaucoma, secondary glaucoma occurs when the drainage of the aqueous humour is impaired, resulting in raised eye pressure. Examples include:

Pigmentary Glaucoma

When pigment is present in the anterior chamber of the eye, deposited on the corneal surface.

Exfoliation Syndrome

White flakes are deposited on the surface of the lens and in the drainage angle.

Glaucoma may also be secondary to changes in the lens of the eye or the uveal tract, or following trauma or eye surgery; it may also be induced by steroid drops or ointments used around the eye for more than a week.

Congenital Glaucoma

Congenital glaucoma (otherwise known as buphthalmos) is a condition present at birth. The baby’s eyes are watery, red and painful, with an enlarged cornea and cupping of the optic disc.

Causes of Glaucoma

In all forms of glaucoma, the outflow of the aqueous humour from the eye is impaired as a result of abnormalities with the drainage system of the front chamber of the eye or impaired access of the aqueous humour to the drainage system. The reason for the defect depends on the type of glaucoma, but the pain and deterioration in vision arise from the abnormally high pressure within the eye.

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