Diabetes Mellitus | Cannabis Wiki

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Diabetes Mellitus

Diabetes mellitus is a chronic disorder in which glucose accumulates in the blood, rather than being stored or used for energy. Diabetes mellitus is classified as Type I and Type II.

Common to both types are associated disturbances of protein and fat breakdown. In addition, minute blood vessels that nourish the heart, kidneys, retina, and nervous system often deteriorate.

People with diabetes are at increase risk of heart disease, kidney failure, foot ulcers, blindness, and severe infections, and impotence in men.

Typical Symptoms Include:

  • Polyuria-which is the production of a large volume of dilute urine during the day and night.
  • Thirst-which may often be intense.
  • Tiredness
  • Weight loss

The onset of Type II diabetes is often less clear-cut than that of Type I diabetes but, when initially diagnosed, some patients report suffering from frequent urination and excessive thirst for months or even years.

In severe cases, patients with very high blood glucose levels may develop life-threatening ketoacidosis due to the excessive breakdown of fat. The patient’s breath smells of acetone and they may suffer from nausea, vomiting, abdominal pains, and confusion. If left untreated, they will become comatose.

Classifying Diabetes

There are two main types of diabetes metllitus: insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (also known as Type I or juvenile) and non-insulin dependent diabetes (Type II).

Type I Diabetes Mellitus

Type I diabetes mellitus is an autoimmune condition resulting from the interaction of genetic and environmental factors. T-lymphocytes from the body’s immune system destroy the beta cells in the pancreas over several years and insulin production eventually fails. The HLA gene involved in the immune damage and other markers, such as antibodies, indicating a risk of diabetes, have also been found in the blood.

Viral infections may trigger Type I diabetes, which often develops when seasonal infections are common. Those possibly implicated include the mumps, rubella, coxsackie viruses, cytomegaloviruses and retroviruses, such as HIV.

Type II Diabetes Mellitus

Type II diabetes mellitus mostly affects middle-aged, obese people. People with Type II diabetes mellitus produce some insulin but, in some cases for unknown reasons, the tissues become insensitive to its action. In other cases, insulin production is reduced or abnormal.

Some people appear to be genetically predisposed to developing Type II diabetes. Poor nutrition in the womb may be a risk factor and may also increase a tendency to become obese.

Obesity is defined as when body weight is 20 percent or more over the desirable maximum weight.

Causes

Diabetes mellitus is due to a failure in the production of the hormone insulin or a reduction in its activity. Insulin is produced by beta cells in the pancreas. It normally controls carbohydrate metabolism and regulates glucose levels in the blood, and the cells in the body all depend on insulin to obtain glucose from the blood for nourishment and energy.

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